Autism/Aspergers

Neurofeedback Treatment
Level 1 Efficacy (Not sufficiently investigated)
One case study of an 8 year old boy with mild autism reported the effect of neurofeedback. After 31 sessions, the boy showed positive changes in all diagnostic dimensions defining autism in the Mental Disorders-III-Revised (Sichel, Fehmi, & Goldstein, 1995).

Review of 60 Cases 
Principles and Outcome, Dr. L. Thompson, Ph.D.

Autistic spectrum disorder clients have primary deficits in their ability to interpret social communications (innuendo, abstract meaning), appropriately initiate and maintain social interactions, handle anxiety, shift mental set, and sustain external attention span and response control. These deficiencies correspond to patterns observed on the EEG that can include slowing at Pz, P4, T6, F4 and PF1 and differences in coherence and comodulation from normal data bases. The presentation lists symptoms of PDD (Autism) and Aspergers syndrome; describes typical cases; outlines assessment and intervention; and gives an overview of results of neurofeedback training with >60 cases, ages 5-51 including some with long-term follow-up.

Qeeg-guided neurofeedback: new Brain-Based individualized evaluation and treatment for Autism
By James Neubrander, Md,1 Michael Linden, Phd,2 Jay Gunkelman, QEEgd,3,4 and Cynth Iakerson, Phd 3,5,6 
http://bio-medical.com/media/support/Neubrander_ASD03-web_copy.pdf

Technical Papers & Abstracts

Coben, R., Linden, M., & Myers, T. E. (Oct. 2009). Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature. Applied Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35(1),83-105. Retrieved from SpringerLink Database.

Coben, R. (2007). Connectivity-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorderBiofeedback35(4), 131-135.

Jarusiewicz, G. (2007). Use of neurofeedback with autistic spectrum disorders. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedbackpp. 321-339. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press,

Jarusiewicz, B. (2002). Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 39-49.

Kouijzer, M. E. U. J., de Moor, J. M. H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K., & Van Schie, H. T. (2009). Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders3, 496-501. Retrieved from ScienceDirect Database.

Kouijzer, M., van Schie H. T., de Moor, J. M.H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K. (Nov. 2009). Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning .Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 November 2009.

Kouijzer, M., van Schie H. T., de Moor, J. M.H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K. (Jan. 2009). Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disordersResearch in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(1), 145-162. Retrieved from ScienceDirect Database.

Kouijzer, M., van Schie H. T., de Moor, J. M.H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K. (April. 2009). 
Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(2), 496-501. Retrieved from ScienceDirect Database.

Pineda, J.A., Brang, D., Hecht, E., Edwards, L., Carey, S., Bacon, M., et. al. (2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders2, 557-581.Retrieved from ScienceDirect Database.

Pineda, J. A., Brang, D., Futagaki, C., Hecht, E., Grichanik, M., Wood, L., Bacon, M., & Carey, S. (2007). Effects of neurofeedback training on action comprehension and imitation learning. Chapter in Puckhaber, H. L. (Ed.), New research in biofeedback,(pp. 133-152). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger’s syndromeInternational Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), 159-163.

Sichel, A.G., Fehmi, L.G., & Goldstein, D. M. (1995). Positive Outcome with Neurofeedback Treatment in Mild AutismJournal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 60-64. Retrieved from ISNR Database.

Thompson, L., Thompson, M., & Reid, A. (Jul. 2009). Functional Neuroanatomy and the Rationale for Using EEG Biofeedback for Clients with Asperger’s Syndrome. Applied Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35(1), 39-61. Retrieved from SpringerLink Database.

Thompson, L., Thompson, M., & Reid, A. (Nov. 2009). Neurofeedback Outcomes in Clients with Asperger’s Syndrome. Applied Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 35(1),63-82. Retrieved from SpringerLink Database.